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软件业趋向纺织业模式,程序员将成为新时代的纺织工人

收藏 时间:2009-12-27 来源:查看 收藏:iuw 阅读:276 标签:工人  纺织  一个  程序员  美国  女孩  
不要以为这个标题是一个玩笑,这可是实实在在的事实,是严肃的产业分析得出的结论。 1月20日《波士顿环球报》发表题为《软件工业的印度之旅》的文章。认为软件编程已经开始遵从美国纺织工业的发展模式,成为可以在海外完成编码的低级手工工业。那么,程序员就是新一代的纺织工人。如同今天的服装行业一样,设计、营销和零售等工作还是在美国完成。Forrester估计,到2015年,美国大约有50万个科技岗位转移到海外

不要以为这个标题是一个玩笑,这可是实实在在的事实,是严肃的产业分析得出的结论。

1月20日《波士顿环球报》发表题为《软件工业的印度之旅》的文章。认为软件编程已经开始遵从美国纺织工业的发展模式,成为可以在海外完成编码的低级手工工业。那么,程序员就是新一代的纺织工人。如同今天的服装行业一样,设计、营销和零售等工作还是在美国完成。Forrester估计,到2015年,美国大约有50万个科技岗位转移到海外,大多数是到印度。比如,一个程序员在美国的总成本是每月10000美元,但是在印度,总费用最多只要2500美元。这种发展趋势使得一些美国高校的计算机学科开始调整课程设置,提升学生的“价值”含量,免得计算机学科的毕业生以后沦为新一代“纺织工人”,不得不与海外廉价的“工人”们去直接竞争。

如果程序员都变成了新时代的“纺织工人”,一个巨大的问号又出来了:纺织工人多以女性为主,而新时代的“纺织工人”却几乎都是大老爷们,难得见到一个女孩,如同异类?这种风水轮流究竟是什么原因?不用着急,1月12日的《纽约时报》探讨了这个问题,文章题为《这里为什么没有女孩?》。一个理论认为,社会的诸多条件限制了女孩进入计算机科学,另一个理论认为女孩先天性地不愿意进入这个领域。据统计,在计算机和信息科学学士学位中,女性比例不足1/3。在更高的学位上,女性只有18%。软件业女性程序员与男性程序员的比例是1:4。许多大学的教授对于这个问题都有着深入的研究,其观点五花八门,别有乐趣,这种研究甚至比编写程序有意思得多。

以下是两篇文章的英文简写,全文请点击标题直接进入:

"In Software Industry, a Passage to India"
Boston Globe (01/20/03) P. C1; Kirsner, Scott

Software programming is set to follow the pattern of the textile industry in the United States as the low-end, hands-on work of coding gets done overseas. But, just as with apparel manufacturers today, design, marketing, and retailing operations are likely to stay here, according to experts. Forrester Research estimates that almost a half-million U.S. tech jobs will be siphoned to other countries by 2015, mostly to India. A number of companies in Massachusetts are already making the switch, in part because of the general tech slowdown. Shikhar Ghosh, founder of e-commerce pioneer Open Market and former Massachusetts Software & Internet Council chairman, is currently selling the assets of Verilytics, his most recent effort. He decided to hold onto his company’s 20 programmers in India while laying off workers in Burlington, Mass., because of simple cost reasons. Whereas each U.S.-based worker costs the company $10,000 per month, the entire Indian operation, including rent, costs Verilytics just $25,000 per month. PTC, the largest software firm in the state, has over 200 Indian programmers in Pune, but vice president of research and development Rich Butler says overseas programmers in general are less productive than those close to the company’s corporate base, and that complex development projects are better done in the United States. However, some firms are looking overseas for high-end skills as well, such as GGA Software in Cambridge, which keeps a staff of 120 in St. Petersburg, Russia, working on statistical modeling, drug discovery, and other scientific applications. John Russo, who heads the computer science department at Wentworth Institute of Technology, says his school is re-positioning its curricula to make sure its graduates know skills valuable for the future, such as how business and IT intersect.

"Where the Girls Aren’t"
New York Times--Education Life (01/12/03) P. 35; Stabiner, Karen

Opinions are divided as to why computer programming is unpopular among girls: One camp subscribes to the theory that girls are socially conditioned to avoid computer science, while another reasons that they are naturally disinclined toward the field. "The wanting to know how things work, that’s often what boys want to know," observes Hope Chafiian, director of technology and curriculum at Spence. Westover School principal Ann Pollina estimates that women account for fewer than one-third of all computer and information science bachelor’s degrees, and just 18 percent of advanced degrees; the ratio of male computer programmers to female programmers in industry is four to one. Girls’ reluctance to study programming could threaten the U.S. domination of the programming industry, according to Kurt Schleunes of the Marlborough School in Los Angeles. He believes that a lot of women are put off by the Advanced Placement curriculum, and suggests that it be revamped so that it is more girl-friendly--such revisions include a de-emphasis on mathematics and a greater concentration on practical applications. Pollina thinks that the computer curriculum must undergo a similar user-friendly retooling, and also believes the number of female computer science graduates could improve if their adult peers change their expectations. Yale freshman Kaitlyn Trigger, who studied under Schleunes, says that girls must learn programming if they are to have a successful technology career.

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